The Pamunkey tribe was one of the largest in the Powhatan paramount chiefdom . The tribe is now based in King William County on the Pamunkey Indian Reservation on the banks of the Pamunkey River. This 1,200-acre reservation is part of land awarded to the Pamunkey in the 17th century. The reservation lands were confirmed as part of the Articles of Peace, a 1677 treaty with the King of England which remains the most important existing document describing Virginia’s historic stance regarding Indian lands. Research on the reservation indicates evidence of Native occupation going back 10,000 – 12,000 years. Pamunkey tribal members continue the traditions of pottery making, fishing, hunting, and trapping. Like the Mattaponi, the Pamunkey place an emphasis on the importance of the shad in the river adjacent to their reservation, and they maintain a shad hatchery to ensure the continuation of the healthy shad runs in the Pamunkey River.